Urban Heat Islands (UHIs)

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Regions of the world that exhibit significant warming over recent decades [are] likely the result of a robust urban heat island effect…

http://www.c3headlines.com/2011/12/new-research-confirms-that-urban-uhi-warming-accounts-for-over-50-of-all-climate-warming.html

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Urban Heat Island Influence Inadequately Considered in Climate Research

https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/12/09/urban-heat-island-influence-inadequately-considered-in-climate-research/

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The Urban Heat Island Effect Distorts Global Temperatures

https://drtimball.ca/2011/the-urban-heat-island-effect-distorts-global-temperatures/

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Rampant, Glaringly Fraudulent Temp Monitoring Stations:

Study sponsored by NOAA finds that poorly-sited air temperature monitoring stations have artificially boosted global warming data

https://www.americanthinker.com/blog/2019/05/study_sponsored_by_noaa_finds_that_poorlysited_air_temperature_monitoring_stations_have_artificially_boosted_global_warming_data.html

…&

The NOAA-sponsored JAMS study confirmed what researchers have consistently maintained for years: Even relatively modest urban development near temperature recording devices can skew temperature measurements.

https://wattsupwiththat.com/2019/05/20/warming-temperature-measurements-polluted-by-bad-data-research-confirms/

and…

Surface Thermometers Do Not Accurately Represent Global Average Temperature (GAT).  The number of weather stations providing data to the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) plunged in 1990 and again in 2005.  The sample size has fallen by over 75% from its peak in the early 1970s, and is now smaller than at any time since 1919.  The collapse in sample size has increased the relative fraction of data coming from airports to about 50 percent (up from about 30 percent in the 1970s).   It has also reduced the average latitude of source data and removed relatively more high-altitude monitoring sites…
There is evidence that Sea Surface Temperature (SST) trends overstate nearby Marine Air Temperature (MAT) trends…
The quality of data over land, namely the raw temperature data in GHCN, depends on the validity of adjustments for known problems due to urbanization and land-use change.  The adequacy of these adjustments has been tested in three different ways, with two of the three finding evidence that they do not suffice to remove warming biases…
The overall conclusion of this report is that there are serious quality problems in the surface temperature data sets that call into question whether the global temperature history, especially over land, can be considered both continuous and precise.

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1653928

and…

After pointing out an airplane got stuck in heat softened asphalt, Al Gore misses the fact that many of the surface temperatures used in climate come from airports

http://wattsupwiththat.com/2012/07/13/after-an-airplane-gets-stuck-in-heat-softened-asphalt-al-gore-misses-the-fact-that-the-majority-of-surface-temperatures-used-in-climate-come-from-airports/

and…

Two-thirds of the [world’s ‘official’ temperature monitoring] stations are at airports and they show regular divergences from the non-airport stations…

http://stevengoddard.wordpress.com/2012/08/05/found-the-fingerprint-of-man-made-climate-change/

and…

What Anthony Watts and Evan Jones have revealed [about false temperature monitoring] is breathtaking, a must see.  Half of the [global] warming trend has gone.  92% of the artificial rise was due to “erroneous adjustments of well sited stations”.  Muller et al used an older siting classification system.  The new classification system shows that siting does have a major impact on the [surface temperature] data.

http://joannenova.com.au/2012/07/the-big-news-is-out-on-watts-up/

and…

Record Temperature Readings Throughout Los Angeles Caused By ‘Faulty Weather Stations,’ Meteorologist Says

https://dailycaller.com/2018/07/09/record-temperature-los-angeles-compromised/

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Annual daytime and nighttime surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII) increased significantly [between 2001 and 2017 and, most surprisingly] the effect of greening in rural areas was a significant and widespread driver for the increased daytime SUHII [globally].

https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018GL081816

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